In electronics Multiple tools are used to form and check circuits ,here we will discuss some of them
Striper cutter is used for cutting the wire and peel the wire. The main use of striper cutter to remove the insulation of the wire. Striper cutter has two-notch one is a center notch and another is edge notch both notches have different work. Center notch for remove insulation and safe inner material (copper and aluminum wire). And second edge notch is used to cut the wire with insulation and inner material. There are two types using a striper cutter.
See Also: FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS
screwdriver is small electronic hand tool. Its use for turning potentiometer which port for control current. Screwdriver is also use for turning screw. It’s use for open any circuitry casing.
We have seen many projects done on a breadboard. But what is breadboard and why we use a breadboard? A breadboard is a simple base of prototyping electronic circuitry. So we can make temporary circuitry very easily.
Why we use breadboard– Breadboard is mainly used for testing and experiment in electronics circuits. At the time we made any electronics project before applying all circuitry in PCB (Printed Circuit Board). We must check circuitry is working or not working. It’s become very easy to find any mistake in breadboard rather than PCB.
On breadboard we can plug component easily without soldering because breadboard provide us to little holes. But with this little holes we can not use standard wire because it’s tough to make connection with those wires and they can damage breadboard also.
The breadboard is divided into two parts. First part top and second bottom part and both parts also divided into two-part. First part of breadboard top and bottom side denoted blue lines all blue lines are connected to series and horizontally.
Breadboard top and bottom side also used for power supply distribution in whole breadboard circuitry. But half breadboard top and the bottom side is disconnected so we can connect the whole breadboard using a jumper wire.
A digital Multimeter is one of the most important instruments in the electronics field. Multimeter displays the result in mathematical digits. A multimeter can find basic faults and measure all electronics parameters at a high accuracy level. An analog multimeter is also available in the market for its own applications.
Multimeter mainly used for measuring voltage (V), current(A), resistance(Ω), transistors and connectivity.
For measuring resistance, we Set multimeter at a high resistance value level, resistance represented in multimeter by (Ω). We can identify Some resistors value by knowing their color code on it, but there is lots of value availability in resistors so it’s hard to look all resistors color code. Then for the frequent results, we use multimeter here.
Multimeter consist two patch cords Red (for +) and Black (for -), we connect both cords to resistor terminals.
For different value of resistors we set multimeter on different value level.
For Example- If we have 10k resistor, so first we set multimeter on 20k value, than examine the value of resistor on display.
Measuring voltage- we can measure both type of voltage (AC) and (DC) by multimeter, multimeter consist low value of voltage to high value of voltage levels .
First we set multimeter to AC or DC mode according to our requirement what we want to measure.
For measuring DC voltage:- If we have 12V battery for measuring how much volts remain on it, we set multimeter at 20V and as we know multimeter has two patch cords. We apply red (positive) cord to the positive side of battery and apply black cord (negative) to negative side of battery and after in friction of second multimeter start showing how much remaining volts stores in to battery. So with the help of this process we can measure all type of battery volts. (Upload a pic)
AC voltage measurement process is also same as DC but first we have to set multimeter AC side.
For measuring current– Measuring current in multimeter is whole different task, but we can measure current easily. We measure current in ampere (A).
first of all we connect black patch cord to ground and red cord to the ampere side on multimeter.
After that we set multimeter on ampere side.
We make sure multimeter must be connected in series line in circuit while we are measuring current, we connect multimeter’s one cord to power side and another cord to load side.
For Example- We want to measure one dc motor’s current. We connect the motor’s positive side to the battery’s positive side, now motor’s one terminal is connected and leave free negative side of motor. After connecting multimeter. Multimeter black cord connect to motor’s negative side and red cord connect to battery’s negative side, after a while multimeter start showing how much current carrying that load. If you didn’t seen any value on multimeter then set multimeter to decreasing order mill ampere (ma) to microampere (μa).
Check connectivity- Now, let’s check the continuity of a circuit. For make sure that the path of our circuit working fine. So Set your multimeter to the continuity side using the selection knob..
Connectivity is represents the complete path for flow of current in circuit. We connect multimeter both patch cords to the testing circuit. If it’s a buzzer ring that’s mean your circuit is completed and it’s working. If buzzer will not ring that mean your circuit is not complete and it’s not in working condition.
You can also test that continuity feature works on your multimeter by touching both probes to each other. This completes the circuit and your multimeter should let you know that. In multimeter at time of testing connectivity it’s also shows the resistance between the two connected cords.
Check transistor- While working with transistors one common problem appears we don’t get easily know which transistor is in our hand is it PNP..? or is it NPN…? We all stuck on that question it is very good to know that multimeter has ability to identify the transistor which we want to work. Now let’s suppose We have a transistor but we don’t know which transistor (PNP or NPN) we have in our hand. So we check transistor through multimeter.
So let’s check transistor. First Set multimeter on diode side. As we know Multimeter has two patch cords red and black.
For NPN- We connect Red cord to the transistor’s base side and black cord to the transistor’s ammeter side or collector side at the same time. If It shows some value in multimeter’s display. That’s mean we have an NPN transistor in our hands. If it does not show any value on display that’s mean we don’t have a NPN transistor. But do not make the reverse connection so you will not have any value on multimeter’s display.
For PNP– Now again we have another transistor. We connect the black cord to the transistor’s base side and red cord to the transistor’s ammeter or collector side. It shows some value in multimeter’s display. That’s mean we have PNP transistor in our hand. If It does not show any value on display that’s mean it’s not a PNP transistor.
Micro USB Power Cable
The Micro USB cable allows you to connect your micro USB port device (such as power supply). It also supplies power to the device. Now we work with specific cables. Some USB cables are ‘charging only’, and have only 2 wires inside, meaning they can only provide power and can’t transfer data. And some cable comes with the data transfer capability also.
Jumper wires are simply wires that have single connector pins at each end, allowing them used to connect two points to each other without soldering. Jumper wires are simply used with breadboards and other prototyping tools in order to make it easy to change a circuit as we want to use.